Tramadol is an analgesic of synthetic origin. It affects the central nervous system and spinal cord, which provides:
• membrane hyperpolarization;
• the opening of both calcium and potassium channels;
• inhibition of the propagation of pain impulses.
Its main feature is the enhancement of sedative medications. Also, it also stimulates the opiate receptors of the nociceptive system, located in the brain, as well as in the digestive tract.
Tramadol helps to slow down the decay of catecholamines and maintains its necessary concentration in the central nervous system. At the same time, the effect of the drug, in general, is much weaker than that of Codeine. Also, it is 6,000 times less effective than morphine.
If Tramadol is used in therapeutic doses, it has no particular effect on the intensity of breathing or hemodynamics. However, it in some way reduces intestinal motility, which, however, does not lead to constipation. Even with systemic intake, the patient does not have an increase in blood pressure in the lungs. It has an unexpressed antitussive effect and an equally blurred sedative.
In the brain, the drug has a depressing effect on the respiratory center, and on the gag, on the contrary, stimulating.
Long-term use of Tramadol often leads to the development of tolerance to it. The anesthetic effect occurs no earlier than 15 minutes. It is stored for 6 hours.
Quite often, patients complain that the medication is not very good. As a result, they increase the doses, and the weekly amount of drugs is not enough. What is the reason for this?
For many, the suspicion creeps in that the doctors miscalculate. In reality, there is no mistake here. The doctor prescribes precisely the amount that is given in the current instructions.
But the patients themselves often incorrectly take Tramadol. The main mistake here is unsystematic.
As medical practice shows, one category of people suffering from oncological pathologies prefers to endure to the end and agrees to injection only when the pain becomes unbearable. In this situation, a relatively large amount of the drug is needed.
At the same time, others, even with comparatively minor sufferings, immediately inject themselves with the maximum allowable dose. In both cases, there is an overuse of medication.
For the given Tramadol to suffice and act as effectively as possible for a long time, we should begin to take it at the first sign of pain and only in the amount prescribed by the doctor.
How to apply
In the early stages, capsules containing 50 milligrams of Tramadol are commonly prescribed. If this amount is not enough, then in an hour later the patient drinks another one. The maximum allowable daily rate for cancer patients is 400 mg or 8 pills.
Patients of retirement age who have liver or kidney disease must take it very carefully and at long intervals.
Drops of Tramadol in the amount of 20 should be dissolved with water or moistened with a piece of sugar. If relief does not come, then after 30 minutes it is allowed to repeat the reception. The instructions indicate that after this the next dose is permissible to drink only after 6 hours. During the day, the patient can use 160 drops.
With moderate pain, Tramadol is administered:
• drip into the vein;
It is essential to administer medication slowly. If the reception did not bring relief, the dose prescribed by the doctor is pushed again in about an hour.
In oncology, when cancer has already developed and caused severe pain, the maximum amount of Tramadol per day with injecting is 600 milligrams.
In some cases, suppositories are prescribed. One candle contains 100 mg of medication. It is allowed to use five pieces per day. Contraindications
Do not use Tramadol in cases of:
• hypersensitivity to active ingredients;
• conditions accompanied by CNS depression or respiratory depression;
• traumatic brain injury;
• abdominal pain of unknown origin;
• intracranial increased pressure.
Initially, it should be limited only to Tramadol tablets, while the pain is not too sharp. It is important to remember that no medicine gives an instant effect. If the overall condition is stable and there is no sharp deterioration, then it is recommended to drink the product in the initially selected volume for several days.
Pills must be consumed after meals and washed down with a small amount of milk. This will relieve the stomach from irritation.
Injections should be taken if the pain intensified to moderate intensity. The transition to doses should be discussed with the doctor.
As evidenced by reviews, among the drugs that act as a tramadol enhancer, Aminazin is the best option. It at times increases analgesic properties. Here, also, you need to monitor blood pressure and pulse.
In general, Tramadol is recommended to be used in combination with non-steroid drugs:
This creates a synergistic effect.
For injections, the drug is combined with diphenhydramine or Relanium. And if the first can be taken in one syringe with Tramadol, then the second must be prick separately.
In no case do not combine the drug with:
It should not be used with narcotic painkillers.
Tramadol is usually prescribed for one or two weeks to reduce the chance of addiction. Also, the body quickly develops tolerance to tramadol, so over time, the recommended dose of the drug becomes less effective. The doctor may advise observing longer intervals between doses of the drug for patients older than 75 years.
Tramadol is available in different forms and concentrations. Here are a few of them:
Style with an instant release of the drug (Ultram). This form of tramadol is available in tablets and is usually prescribed for intake as needed with an interval of 4-6 hours. Such pills are prescribed for pain in the back, sciatica, as well as for postoperative pain. Form with the instant release of the active substance is well suited to those people who do not need constant pain relief;
Sustained release form of the drug. This form of tramadol is available in tablets and capsules containing a dose exceeding the average. The drug is released gradually, within 24 hours, so it needs to be taken once a day. This form was created for people with chronic pain and therefore avoids situations where pain becomes too strong. Also, the sustained release form provides a night of more sound sleep. The maximum dosage of the drug is 300 mg per day, but with problems with the liver and kidneys, the dose may be reduced.
Oral suspension. Tramadol is also available in the form of an oral suspension, which may be convenient for patients who find it difficult to swallow. The drug is usually taken 3-4 times a day.
If tramadol is prescribed for back pain, the doctor usually starts with a small dose, for example, 25 mg per day, which can then be gradually increased to the one that will be effective for a particular patient. For most adults, the maximum safe dose of tramadol is 400 mg per day, if we are talking about pills with an instant release of the drug.
As with other medications, there are some particular risks and complications associated with taking tramadol, which is essential to know. Now we consider them in detail.
Tramadol is often prescribed to treat back pain, and, in general, it is considered a safer alternative to other drugs. However, it is still a potent drug that must be taken with caution. Interactions with other medicines, side effects, the risk of addiction and the development of withdrawal syndrome – these are the main points that you need to think about before taking tramadol.
At the time of taking tramadol, because of its effect on the body, it may require some restrictions in life and at work. Driving a car, working with machinery, and other activities that require mental and physical coordination may be unsafe.
The interaction of tramadol with other drugs and complications
If the doctor is going to prescribe tramadol to you, it is imperative to provide him with comprehensive information about other medicines and supplements you are taking. The interaction of drugs and supplements with tramadol can be a threat to life. For example, the use of Hypericum can cause a substantial increase in serotonin in the blood. The combination of tramadol with alcohol, sedatives or other narcotic drugs can also entail severe medical complications.
It is important to tell your doctor about any problems with alcohol, even if they are passed, episodes of depression, epilepsy, head injuries, if they were, problems with the liver and kidneys, convulsions, so that he can compile a comprehensive medical history. These conditions may increase the risk of complications. The doctor also needs to be informed about pregnancy or breastfeeding. People with suicidal tendencies, as well as people prone to addiction tramadol cannot be assigned.